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Communicating Science in 20th Century Europe. Post on Oct 60 views. Methodological and historiographical reflections on the use of newspapers in the history of science: What can news about earthquakes, volcanoes and eclipses tell us? Representations of radium and radioactivity in the Spanish Jesuit magazine Ibrica, 45Nestor Herran4.
Some notes on the popularization of quantum and atomic physics in Spain, 61Mara C. The popularization of science in Spain around New sources, new questions 77Agust Nieto-Galn6. New initiatives in popular science publishing in early twentieth-century Britain 85Peter J. Teaching and learning Science in Hungary: Science Communication as Political Tool9. A Soviet scientific public sphere: Science for the masses. The political background of Polish and Soviet science popularization in the post-war period Leszek Zasztowt1Table of Contents Public policies of publicisation of science in post-war France.
Toward a “state affair” Andre Bergeron Atapuerca the making of a magic mountain. State-controlled multimedia education for all? Science programs in early German radio Arne Schirrmacher Science in the French popular media in the s and 40s: Towards New Perspectives in Popular Science StudiesA Some ideas from the General discussion B A preliminary landscape of 20th century science periodicals C Notes on literature for some European regions D Selected literature IntroductionThe most difficult terrain is probably that where we erroneously believe that we are on famili-ar ground.
In the case of the interpolation, however, we tend to make between the mode of science popularization, that is so well-known to us historians of science for the 19th century, and the contemporary information or knowledge society this may turn out not to be accurate.
Research in a new terrain thus needs to start with inspection. In this sense this collection of papers invites the reader to a tour that explores varied paths in the wide landscape of 20th cen-tury popular science. The preprint documents a symposium on “Communicating Science in 20th Century Europe: Comparative Perspectives” held on 28 July and organized by Leszek Zasztowt and myself.
This symposium begrer gathered for jzzefn first time a larger group of international scholars in order to deal with popular science and science communication in the 20th century. Comparative Perspectives” in a smaller session. Meanwhile in an ISIS focus section on “historicizing popular science” it was in particular Andreas Daum who pointed at three severe imbalances of the field, that might be stated in a very simplified manner as: As it turned out after a full day of presentations and discussions in Budapest, the topic of the 20th century was much too rich and multifaceted than to allow reaching a definite picture already after termszeet wonderful talks; but a discourse was established jzdefn is ongoing.
The present collection of papers some of them close to the original presentation, some of them already more expanded and elaborated hence serves the purpose to document existing knowledge, scholarship, research perspectives and questions.
The papers rather ll the beginning of an effort still to be made to integrate, compare and interpret the multiple roles of science in 20th century culture. For this reason we abstain from any global synthesis at this time as the right classification scheme the equipment the traveler through the many commu-nicative spaces of science would need is not yet available, but the topis is on the table.
It were very fortunate circumstances allowing that besides the scholars planned to participate in the symposium further contributions could be added. Andrews and Tibor Frank could not attend the symposium but kindly provided papers for this collection, also scholars who were not speakers of this particular symposium but had relevant 1 Andreas Betger Some Historical Reflections, Isis, on The individual papers present, whenever possible, not only the historical analysis but also display quality and character of the sources they use, which turn out to be a wealth of material often hardly exploited.
For this reason also a number of illustrations have been included and tedmszet addition available collections and databases are men-tioned.
Clearly, these roughly pages cannot be complete in any sense. Science in film and on TV is obviously one of the biggest white spots here, which can be only half-way justified with the growing attention it has received in recent times elsewhere.
The first section starts with the analysis of newspapers and at the very beginning of the 20th century. However, newspaper science is here not approached from the better known press of the strong science nations but rather from the periphery. Drawing on their insights that were gained from the STEP initiative Science and Technology in the European Pheriphery 3 Papanelopoulou, Mergoupi-Savaidou and Tzorkas provide some methodological and historio-graphical reflections that are complemented with the analysis of a full newspaper issue after the event of Halleys comet in May Simes, Carneiro and Diogo in turn compare three Portuguese newspapers and their coverage of earthquakes and volcanoes.
Besides regional difference of interest, writing on science in the newspaper served both to affirm Portuguese science and scientists internationally as well as a means to translate political and cultural issues to a less problematic level.
Switching to popular science journals, Nestor Herran studies in detail the representations of radium and radioactivity in the Spanish Ibrica, while Maria Bosca comments on the popular-ization of atomic and quantum physics in the same journal. While Herran carefully investi-gates also the Jesuit context of the journal and considers processes of appropriation of science, Bosc highlights physics content jzswfn journalistic forms of science communication in Ibrica.
The second section about 20th century publishing and learning phenomena collects four papers on four countries and spans over the full 20th century.
Agust Nieto-Galan deals with the phenomenon, that scientific backwardness of peripheral Spain at the turn to the 20th cen-tury did not at all entail low activities in science popularization. Rather did the lack of clear boundaries between publications of popular volumes, educational writings and textbooks re-sult in a dynamic setting that allowed to mobilize popular science as means for institutionaliz-ation of professional science.
Communicating Science in 20th Century Europe – [PDF Document]
Nieto-Galan exhibits various mechanisms for this kind of phe-nomenon by discussiong the cases of Darwinism, astronomy and thermodynamics and hence of three protagonists Odn de Buen, Josep Comas Sla and Jos Echegaray. These examples 2 See e. Im Kino der Humanwissenschaften.
Arsenal der anderen Gattungen 2; Timothy Boon: A history of science in documentary films and television, London ; and related activities of the “History of Scientific Observation” group of the MPIWG dealing with film. In his brief account on the British developments Peter Bowler, who has just provided a com-prehensive account in his new book, points at an overlooked issue in the history of science popularization: Here not journalists but scientists engaged in popular writing also to improve their low aca-demic salariesa finding that challenges accounts of a story of simple increase in profession-alization.
2009. : 2010. 378 p.
Tibor Frank in contrast describes the Hungarian development as a learning phenomenon of transnational knowledge exchanges and exported traditions. The learning experiences of Hun-garian scholars are reconstructed using autobiographical accounts. In his analysis of the impact of the collapse of the Soviet Bloc on popular science publishing in Poland, Jarosaw Wodarczyk demonstrates the phenomenon of a dramatic change from one mode of science publishing to another as it can be read off from quantitative indicators as number of titles, print runs and percentages of translations.
Whether this is just the adaption to a Western model is a question that probably should be answered by historians. The papers of the third section consider the political dimension of science communication. Andrews gives a brief outline of the Soviet model which is always understood as the exemplar for the Eastern European countries.
Andrews, however, reminds us of the fact that even the Soviet development is marked by stark redefinitions, e. Leszek Zasztowt also considers the Soviet model when he tries to analyze the Polish develop-ment, but he clearly shows how independent and dwelling on various European traditions Poland followed its own path of science communication.
Using contemporary art Zasztowt conveys a suggestive interpretation that leads, among others, to the insight that science com-munication also was a factor in the collapse of the communist system. Andre Bergerons paper read at the Budapest symposium dealt with the same decades of the 20th century but finds a very different culture scientifique et technique that is implemented by a redefinition of French science policy.
The French understanding and interpretation of sci-ence and public in terms of publicisation turns out to be rather difficult to subsume it in the set of modes that have been generalized from the research on English and German speaking communities.
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Uzsefn we can only present her abstract and a reference to a recent publication, as it turned out to be much more bedger to adequately present the French conception to an international audience. Human origins research, it seems, cannot be pursued as a purely scientific project anymore. Not only is medialization an indis-pensable part of the scientists work, Hochadels analysis of 27 books on Atapuerca moreover 4 The author, however, is currently trying to accomplish this and will present her account elsewhere.
The question of the fourth section, how one could extend the analysis of science communica-tion beyond print, receives here only two preliminary answers. Trying termszeh locate the German history of radio and science communication within a diverse array of models that can be found worldwide, Schirrmacher notes that German radio in the Weimar Republic had nothing democratic or liberating.
Termsze supply of programs on science and technology in a fully state-controlled radio corresponded to the educational values of a Kulturnation that would fight trash and dirt in new media, first in film after bad experiences then on the radio proactively. Daniel Raichvarg, finally, pushes the inquiry further to the berher of popular science in the French day-to-day life and looks beyond educated classes.
Juxtaposing shows in caf concerts and broadcasts on the French radio of the s and s, Raichvarg observes a permanent mixture of contexts and forms within which science is embedded into culture.
The appendix documents the general discussion of the Budapest symposium, draws a prelim-inary landscape of 20th century science periodicals and provides some guidance to a selection of literature.
I would like to express my gratitude in particular to Jrgen Renn for his encouragement and support. I thank Agust Nieto-Galan for early discussions, that had shaped the project consid-erably, and Leszek Zasztowt both for close collaboration and for hospitality during a stay in Warsaw in December The Greek case, Faidra Papanelopoulou, Eirini Mergoupi-Savaidou, Spyros TzokasDepartment of Philosophy and History of Science, University of AthensNewspapers in the history of scienceNewspapers are often temszet as archival sources in historical research despite debates over their bsrger.
Knudson has remarked newspapers contain so many different types of material that no simple statement about their value is possible.
Historians usually select specific types of newspaper articles in order to gather information about political and ideological trends, patterns of social attitudes, images of race, class, gender and national berfer, consumerism cultures, local communities, minority groups, lives of individuals, urbanisation, historical earthquake or flood data etc.
The use mzsefn newspapers in the history of science is a less common practice. For a report of a the various uses of newspapers by historians and social scientists see Jones, A.
Newspapers as Historical Sources, Pespectives, 31 Built on previous criticism on the diffusionist model,6 recent terkszet has attempted to re-introduce the so-far marginal field of science popularisation in a reconceptualised history of science based on the concept of knowledge in transit. In order to attain a wider understand-ing of the place of ll in the 19th century, and to address the increasing diversity jzefn read-ing audiences, SciPers research team has decided to study the full range of periodical types.
Moreover, by paying attention to the entire contents of the periodicals, they brger that sci-ence, technology and medicine did not appear only in scientific articles, but permeated discus-sions on various topics related to Victorian culture and history. Unlike periodicals, newspapers are bberger by a less elaborate genre of writing, less coherent contents and less readily identifiable editorial agendas.
Recording the daily pulse of life, newspaper articles are characterized by spontaneity, directness and liveliness and can, therefore, be considered to reflect the immediate response of the public to the daily news. Moreover, newspapers often contain a variety of views and opinions that do not necessarily agree with each other, but capture the multiple dimensions of the political and social climate of a certain period.
One the one hand, it is important to stress the richness of the daily press as an archival material, and legitimate its complementary or even autonomous use in the history of science. On the other hand, the extent to which science and technology are topics that permeate the entire newspaper and are not limited to specific columns dealing with sci-6 Hilgartner, S.
Forms and Functions of Popularisation Dordrecht, Some historical reflections, Isis, Approches Historiques et Thoriques. Actes du Colloque Interna-tional. Athnes, Mai Athnes, The Greek case, ence popularisation, is indicative berrger the important role science and technology played in the formation of modern societies.