Thesis for: Maestría en Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos, Advisor: de proteínas del suero y/o carragenina sobre la cristalización de la. carragenina agente espesante o aglutinante en alimentos, productos farmacéuticos, cosméticos y líquidos industriales; como agente clarificante para bebidas. Qué es la carragenina y en qué alimentos la encuentras? | Leche | Salud | Estilo de Vida.
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June 04, ; accepted: IC was added to the formula of a cooked ham standard brine, established according to the following ratios of 14 treatments T: IC mixture and T The lowest syneresis was shown for T11 and the lowest predicted syneresis by a third grade polynomial was shown in the mixtures IC for days 14 and 28, respectively, with a syneresis value of 0.
KC, with a value of IC, with a value of 0. In the sensory analysis, T7 caarragenina T11 sampling points closer to these optimal were those that received the best scores in the evaluated parameters. Hardness, elasticity, sensory, brine. CI, con un valor de 0, Injected meats constitute a technology that gains demand from alimenntos consumers every day, fulfilling their expectations almientos products with better flavor texture and juiciness, for better acceptance.
The quality of cooked hams is linked to diverse factors: The meat industry has reduced the use of meat protein with the purpose of reducing costs, while trying to maintain the commercial quality characteristics. Therefore, agents have been developed to maintain texture, and retain and stabilize high amounts of water, allowing for the extension of products, with a low impact on the quality Restrepo et al.
Various studies have been developed to try to find out which hydrocoloids to use with each meat product Amako and Xiong, ; Hsu and Chung, ; Pietrasik and Li-Chan, ; Jarmoluk and Pietrasik, ; Pietrasik and Jarmoluk, ; Verbeken et al. Finding the ratio where these agents should be mixed to get a high synergistic effect is of interest in the meat industry.
In spite of the efforts of technicians in manufacturing to retain the humidity of vacuumed packed cooked meat products, the issue with syneresis or water release remains; in addition, with an effect on the final presentation, it represents a bigger issue in terms of microbiology quality of the product, since the amount of water released boosts the proliferation carragenkna microorganisms.
This syneresis is seen in cooked hams due to the inappropriate retention of water that is added to the process, associated with the inefficient extraction of meat protein when tumbling and the limited functionality of the water holder agents Montoya, ; Restrepo et al. The formula of the brine was as follows: Preparation of the brine. For each sampling point, 1, g of brine, divided into 2 portions, were used; in the first portion, a third of water was used with all the constituents that contribute ionic strenght salt, phosphates, sugar, nitrites, carrageniina acid ; and, in the second one, the remaining water was mixed with the ingredients that hold water soy protein, starch and hydrocolloidswith the purpose of making a higher protein extraction easier, avoiding interference that could cause hydrocolloids.
Mixture designs were used and measured for individual effects, for pair and triple interactions, with three components: In the cubic arrangement, it was necessary to explore 14 points in the sampling surface, alimfntos which 2 replicates were performed in the sampling peripherical points and 3 replicates in the central points, which where chosen only after pre-tests. It was decided not to explore points 1 and 8 because during the pre-experimental phase and literature review, it wasn’t expected to find the optimal point in this area.
The mixtures under evaluation are shown in Table 1 and Figure 1.
Syineresis was determined by the difference of weight with an analytical scale, Ne Toledo XPS with 0. Syneresis was expressed as: The sensory analysis was carried out through a ranking test using 5 trained judges of the INTAL Foundation; hardness, elasticity and general acceptance were evaluated. For the evaluation of each parameter, one sample piece of every sampling point was given to the judges, who caarragenina them from the best to the worst performance for every evaluated parameter.
The evaluations were carried out on a square table with artificial zenithal lighting. In Table 2the average results of syneresis for days alimentow and 28 of the hams are shown for every sampling point; these data were entered in the software Design-Expert version 6 to obtain the response surface and the ANOVAS for this variable. According to alimfntos results, one can see the way time increases the syneresis percentage; this same behavior carrgenina stated by Montoya alimentls al.
In Figure 2the response surface obtained from the sampling points under evaluation is shown. The curves of level show the concentrations with the same syneresis percentages. In many companies dedicated to ham production, Kappa carrageenan is the only hydrocolloid used due to its alimenttos gel strength, so this point can be taken as a pattern or reference value Tovar, and Lopez, IC combination, the highest syneresis was shown syneresis higher than 1.
The lowest syneresis was shown in the region close to the sampling point T11, with an expected syneresis lower than 0. These values of syneresis are consistent with the study reported by Restrepo et al. In another study carried out by Montoya et al. In spite of this, the adjusted R2 were 0. Additionally, the polynomial coefficients were obtained and the prediction equation for the syneresis at 14 and 28 days equations 1 and 2 was expressed.
IC showed lower syneresis at 14 days 0. IC showed the lowest expected syneresis at 28 days 2. In Figure 3the area of lower syneresis according to the equations 1 and 2 is shown.
Hardness and elasticity were evaluated through a TAP test. In Czrragenina 3the average data of these properties at 14 and 28 days are shown. While, Hsu and Chung evaluated the elasticity in meat balls with Kappa carrageenan, finding values between 0.
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With the experimental data, the response surface was obtained to observe the behavior of the hardness in the sampling space and to identify the behavior of the hardness over time, which are shown in Figure 4. The test of lack of adjustment for hardness through a TAP test for the days 14 and 28 suggested the special cubic model for both times. With the special cubic model, the standard deviation was 1. The hardness of the samples increased with time, finding that at 28 days, the curves of level move, resulting in higher values for each sampling point; a behavior consistent with the findings of Restrepo et al.
Polynomial coeficients were also found and the prediction equation for hardness at 14 and 28 days equations 3 and 4 was expressed. With these, the mixture that would carragenian the highest value of this characteristic was predicted, which was KC, for days 14 and 28, respectively Figure 5 ; with values very close to those found by Fernandez et al.
To define the zone of similar behavior, 2 standard deviations were substracted from the value of maximum hardness resulting in a limit of This zone is shown in Figure 5.
With the data of elasticity, the response surface was obtained with the objective of evaluating the behavior, in the sampling space, over time, that shows the elasticity of the hams of carragenia Figure 6.
LBG shows the highest elasticity. Over time, the elasticity of the samples decresased, notably, at 28 days, the curves of level move, resulting in a small area with elasticity higher than 0. The coeficient of the polynomial components was obtained and the equation of prediction for elasticity at 14 and 28 days was developed equations 5 and 6.
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With these equations, the mixture with the highest elasticity in the response surface was predicted, defining the sample IC, along with the one with the highest values of elasticity at 14 days and 6.
Substracting 2 standard deviations from the optimum value of elasticity, the area that would not represent significant statistical difference with the optimum was obtained. This zone can also be noticed in Figure 7. The sensory analysis was based on the 12 treatments through a ranking test, where 3 attributes were evaluated: In this analysis, each judge gave grade 12 to the best ham, the next one 11 and so on, until finding the lowest performance with grade 1.
In Figures 89 and 10the average scores according to the judges in the grading for each characteristic can be seen. T11 and T7, corresponding to the mixtures IC, received the best scores for hardness, elasticity and general acceptance, having the points closest to the optimal obtained for hardness and elasticity by instrumental methods.
In general, the treatments T7 KC and T11 The prediction of lower syneresis in the mixture The higher values of instrumental elasticity were shown in mixtures IC for the days 14 and In the sensory analysis, T7 IC obtained the best scores for this characteristic.
According to the lack of adjustment test, the special cubic model and the cubic model fit the variables hardness and instrumental elasticity, respectively; the lack of adjustment test was significant for syneresis, which means that a more complex model could adjust the data to the response surface even more.
Carragenina, algas extracto natural), de aditivos alimentarios, alimentos
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